By American Academy of Ophthalmology, John Bryan Holds MD
Info the anatomy of the orbit and adnexa, and emphasizes a realistic method of the review and administration of orbital and eyelid issues, together with malpositions and involutional alterations. Updates present details on congenital, inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic and nerve-racking stipulations of the orbit and accent constructions. Covers key elements of orbital, eyelid and facial surgery.
Upon of entirety of part 7, readers could be capable to:
Describe the conventional anatomy and serve as of orbital and periocular tissues
Choose applicable exam options and protocols for diagnosing problems of the orbit, eyelids, and lacrimal system
Describe useful and beauty symptoms within the surgical administration of eyelid and periorbital stipulations
Read or Download 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 7: Orbit Eyelids and Lacrimal System PDF
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Additional info for 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 7: Orbit Eyelids and Lacrimal System
Parasympathetic innervation enters the eye as the short posterior ciliary nerves after synapsing within the ciliary ganglion. Parasympathetic innervation to the lacrirnal gland originates in the lacrimal nucleus of the pons and eventually joins the lacrimal nerve to enter the lacrimal gland. The sympathetic innervation to the orbit provides for pupillary dilation, vasoconstriction, smooth muscle function of the eyelids and orbit, and hidrosis. The nerve fibers follow the arterial supply to the pupil, eyelids, and orbit and travel anteriorly in association with the long ciliary nerves.
_~ ' 29 25 27 23 Top view of left orbit. , ophthalmic nerve; SG, sphenopalatine ganglion; SOM, superior oblique muscle; SOT, superior oblique tendon; SOIi, superior ophthalmic vein; SRM, superior rectus muscle; STL, superior transverse ligament; T, trochlea; W, vortex veins; 1, infratrochlear nerve; 2, supraorbital nerve and artery; 3, supratrochlear nerve; 4, anterior ethmoid nerve and artery; 5, lacrimal nerve and artery; 6, posterior ethmoid artery; 7, frontal nerve; 8, long ciliary nerves; 9, branch of cranial nerve Ill to medial rectus muscle; 10, nasociliary nerve; 11, cranial nerve IV; 12, ophthalmic (orbital) artery; 13, superior ramus of cranial nerve Ill; 74, cranial nerve VI; 15, ophthalmic artery, origin; 76, anterior ciliary artery; 17, vidian nerve; 78, inferior ram us of cranial nerve 111; 20, sensory branches from ciliary ganglion to nasociliary nerve; 27, motor (parasympathetic) nerve to ciliary ganglion from nerve to inferior oblique muscle; 22, branch of cranial nerve 111 to inferior rectus muscle; 23, short ciliary nerves; 24, zygomatic nerve; 25, posterior ciliary arteries; 26, zygomaticofacial nerve; 27, nerve to inferior oblique muscle; 28, zygomaticotemporal nerve; 29, lacrimal secretory nerve; 32, lacrimal artery and nerve terminal branches.
History Pain Pain may be a symptom of inflammatory and infectious lesions, orbital hemorrhage, malignant lacrimal gland tumors, invasion from adjacent nasopharyngeal carcinoma, or metastatic lesions. Progression The rate of progression can be a helpful diagnostic indicator. Disorders with onset occurring over days to weeks are usually caused by nonspecific orbital inflammation (NSOI), cellulitis, hemorrhage, thrombophlebitis, rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma, metastatic tumors, or granulocytic sarcoma.