By W. Gosling (auth.)

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**Extra info for A First Course in Applied Electronics: An Introduction to Microelectronic Systems**

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16 the load line drawn corresponds to RL = 300 ohms. 2) with superimposed load line corresponding to RL = 300 ohms, E = 3 volts. Taking the ringed points on Fig. 16 as simultaneous solutions valid for the circuit of Fig. 15, it becomes possible to plot a curve of the load current (Id or load voltage (RLld against the input parameter IB (remember that the bipolar transistor is behaving here as a current controlled device). This gives a transfer curve for the amplifier, shown in Fig. 17. Obviously, the linear region is very far from being centred at the origin, instead the transfer curve is most linear for values of base (input) current between 50 and 100 IlA.

Coupled amplifier. connected in series with it. To simplify the analysis we have left out Rs. The voltage across R I is now not VI but V'I where jwCIR I V 1 + jwC1R I I = jw/wl VI . VI + jw/w l =J wt/w + jl 1 Hence, writing Ay(w) as V2 /VI as usual Ay(w) = Ay(cx) . 1+ 1 . wt/Jw where Ay(cx) is the gain at large w (but not so large that highfrequency effects come into play). Obviously Ay(w) -+ Ay(cx) as w becomes large This gives the high-frequency asymptote. At low frequencies Thus at low frequencies the magnitude of the gain is asymptotic to the straight line 36 A FIRST COURSE IN APPLIED ELECTRONICS whilst the factor j in the expression for Av{w) at low frequencies indicates 90° of phase lead.

Integrated circuit amplifiers will probably push this limit even higher. At low enough frequencies the equivalent circuit at the output terminals of the amplifier can (by Norton's or Thevenin's theorems) always be represented by a generator (constant current or constant voltage) and a resistor (Fig. 1). The input circuit, since it dissipates power, can be represented by a resistor. 1 The equivalent circuits for an amplifier output. The following terms can now be defined, referring to Fig. 2 : I nput resistance Output resistance R1 = R2 Vd II = (Jl V1 - V2 )/ 12 It is important to note that R 1 may vary in value if RL changes and similarly R z could be a function of Rs.