By Gungor V.C., Lambert F.C.
In present day aggressive electrical software market, trustworthy and real-time info turn into the main issue for trustworthy supply of strength to the end-users, profitability of the electrical application and shopper delight. The operational and advertisement calls for of electrical utilities require a high-performance information communique community that helps either latest functionalities and destiny operational specifications. during this appreciate, considering the fact that one of these verbal exchange community constitutes the middle of the electrical procedure automation purposes, the layout of an economical and trustworthy community structure is important. during this paper, the possibilities and demanding situations of a hybrid community structure are mentioned for electrical approach automation. extra in particular, net dependent digital inner most Networks, energy line communications, satellite tv for pc communications and instant communications (wireless sensor networks, WiMAX and instant mesh networks) are defined intimately. the incentive of this paper is to supply a greater knowing of the hybrid community structure which can supply heterogeneous electrical procedure automation software necessities. during this regard, our goal is to offer a dependent framework for electrical utilities who plan to make use of new verbal exchange applied sciences for automation and for this reason, to make the decision-making technique more desirable and direct.
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Additional info for A survey on communication networks for electric system automation
Moreover, AIPAC shows a very lower level of complexity than . This is an important issue because generally speaking ad hoc devices have constrained computational and power resources. 4. 26 of the NS2 simulator  with the Carnegie–Mellon University (CMU) support for simulating multi-hop wireless networks . This package provides physical, data link, and medium access control (MAC) layer models. 11 for wireless LANs is used as the MAC layer protocol . An unslotted carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) technique with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) is used to transmit the data packets.
It can cause resources loss in managing the data trafﬁc. Compared with [15,14], AIPAC is more suitable for large network due to our reactive approach for managing addresses assignment.  proposes a solution which suﬀers from the complexity in keeping the information updated in all the nodes of a network. In the same way, the approach proposed in  can cause high overhead for the synchronization procedure in large and dynamic networks. Moreover, AIPAC shows a very lower level of complexity than .
The server regularly receives feedback information from the clients and adaptively adjusts its transmission rates. The packets will be used for the playback after they arrive at the client buﬀer. When the transmission rates at the server and the playback rates at the client are diﬀerent, client buﬀer is used to accommodate the mismatches between transmission rates and playback rates. With the buﬀering of some packets and a slightly delay of the playback schedule, the client decreases the playback jitter caused by variations of network bandwidth and the end-to-end delay.