By Hadley Wickham.

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Why is 1 == "1" true? Why is -1 < FALSE true? Why is "one" < 2 false? 6. Why is the default missing value, NA, a logical vector? What’s special about logical vectors? 2 Attributes All objects can have arbitrary additional attributes, used to store metadata about the object. Attributes can be thought of as a named list (with unique names). Attributes can be accessed individually with attr() or all at once (as a list) with attributes(). 1. 3. 2. Each of these attributes has a speciﬁc accessor function to get and set values.

By modifying an existing vector in place: x <- 1:3; names(x) <- c("a", "b", "c"). • By creating a modiﬁed copy of a vector: x <- setNames(1:3, c("a", "b", "c")). Names don’t have to be unique. 1, is the most important reason to use names and it is most useful when the names are unique. Not all elements of a vector need to have a name. If some names are missing, names() will return an empty string for those elements. If all names are missing, names() will return NULL. Data structures 21 y <- c(a = 1, 2, 3) names(y) #> [1] "a" "" "" z <- c(1, 2, 3) names(z) #> NULL You can create a new vector without names using unname(x), or remove names in place with names(x) <- NULL.

Array(x) return? 3. How would you describe the following three objects? What makes them diﬀerent to 1:5? pdf) makes data analysis easier. Under the hood, a data frame is a list of equal-length vectors. This makes it a 2-dimensional structure, so it shares properties of both the matrix and the list. This means that a data frame has names(), colnames(), and rownames(), although names() and colnames() are the same thing. The length() of a data frame is the length of the underlying list and so is the same as ncol(); nrow() gives the number of rows.