By D. Virgil Alfaro III et al.
- Learn from a well known team of retina surgeons who handle all facets of administration, together with anatomy, body structure, and pathophysiology; imaging of the macula in ARMD, prevention measures and remedy; and destiny instructions within the field.
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Extra info for Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Still, group sizes of 10 monkeys are typically required to document significant effects, and in some studies, smaller group sizes have generated inconclusive results (233,234). Laser Injury in Rabbits and Pigs Rabbit elDirini et al. (235) used rabbits in an attempt to find an intermediate laser-induced CNV model between rodents and primates, thereby avoiding the expense and ethical issues concerning the latter. Nonetheless, rabbits exhibit significant anatomical discrepancies, as they do not have a macula and their retina vascular supply is different.
Among the composites found in the drusen of cynomolgus macaques, we can remark the following: ■■ The apolipoprotein E ■■ Amyloid P component ■■ Complement component C5 ■■ The terminal C5b-9 complement complex ■■ Vitronectin, membrane cofactor protein ■■ Annexins ■■ Crystallins ■■ Immunoglobulins For further studying, a breeding colony derived from these macaques was established at the University of Florida in 1994, and equivalent features were displayed (179). In spite of the much higher occurrence of macular drusen in young adult to middle-age macaques compared to that observed in humans, the disease seems to progress more slowly and only occasionally lead to geographic atrophy or CNV (167,176,178).
3% and 10%, respectively (76). A marker of oxidative damage to DNA (I-OHdG) was detected in the RPE of senescent Sod 1 knockout mice but not in controls. The CNV appeared to connect with retinal vessels in 16-month-old compared with year-old mice. Ccr2-/Ccl2-Deficient Mice The Ccr2-/Ccl2-deficient mouse model of AMD has received considerable attention (154). In this model, transgenic mice deficient in either Ccl2 or Ccr2 fail to recruit macrophages to the area of the RPE and BM. This allows for accumulation of C5a and IgG, both of which induce VEGF production.