By Jeroen van Craenenbroeck
Within the Nineteen Eighties generative grammar famous that useful fabric is ready to undertaking syntactic constitution in conformity with the X-bar-format. This perception quickly ended in a substantial bring up within the stock of sensible projections. the fundamental proposal in the back of this line of theorizing, which works by way of the identify of cartography, is that sentence constitution should be represented as a template of linearly ordered positions, each one with their very own syntactic and semantic import. in recent times, even though, a couple of difficulties were raised for this method. for instance, sure combos of syntactic parts can't be linearly ordered. In gentle of such difficulties a couple of substitute debts were explored. a few of them suggest a brand new (often interface-related) set off for move, whereas others search replacement technique of accounting for varied note order styles. those choices to cartography don't shape a homogeneous team, nor has there to date been a discussion board the place those rules may be in comparison and faced with each other. This quantity fills that hole. It deals a different and in-depth view at the place taken by way of a considerable variety of researchers within the box this day on what's possibly probably the most hotly debated and arguable concerns in present-day generative grammar.
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Hmm, pasta-wa doo-ka sira-nai-kedo, ‘Well, I don’t know about the pasta, but . . ’ tabeteita (yo) a. eating (PRT) b. ’ Thus, contrary to what is commonly assumed, wa-phrases that meet the interpretive criteria for contrastive topichood must appear clause-initially. They cannot remain in situ. Although the rule in (23) generalizes over aboutness topics and contrastive topics, the syntax of these two types of topics is not identical. As argued in the introduction, [contrast] licenses A’-movement (see (5)).
Topic [COMMENT FOCUS [BACKGROUND . . ]] ∗ FOCUS [ BACKGROUND topic [COMMENT . . ]] Given that these partitionings are exhaustive, the domain of contrast for a focus must consist of material chosen from the background, while the domain of con- A syntactic typology of topic, focus and contrast 23 trast for a topic must consist of material chosen from the comment. This implies that DoC marking does not only identify material on which a contrast is based, but also forces this material to be construed as belonging to the background or the comment, depending on the interpretation of the contrastive constituent.
We first turn to unstressed wa-phrases. Although an aboutness topic must appear in clause-initial position, an unstressed wa-phrase can follow a fronted focus in the response to a question like (31). The rule in (23) predicts that the wa-phrase in (31b) should not be a topic. This seems to be correct; in particular sono inu-wa ‘this dog-wa’ is best characterized as a simple discourse-anaphoric expression (on a par with the English pronoun in (3b)). 34 (31) Ad Neeleman, Elena Titov, Hans van de Koot and Reiko Vermeulen Who did the dog bite?