Anatomy and Physiology (Cliffs Quick Review) by Phillip E. Pack Ph.D.

By Phillip E. Pack Ph.D.

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Extra resources for Anatomy and Physiology (Cliffs Quick Review)

Sample text

Meiosis Meiosis (adjective, meiotic) is very similar to mitosis. The major distinction is that meiosis consists of two groups of divisions, meiosis I and meiosis II (Figure 2-7). In meiosis I, homologous chromosomes pair at the metaphase plate and then migrate to opposite poles. In meiosis II, chromosomes spread across the metaphase plate, and sister chromatids separate and migrate to opposite poles. Thus, meiosis II is analogous to mitosis. A summary of each meiotic stage follows. ■ Prophase I begins like prophase of mitosis.

The endoplasmic reticulum, or ER, consists of stacks of flattened sacs involved in the production of various materials. In cross-section, they appear as a series of mazelike channels, often closely associated with the nucleus. When ribosomes are present, the ER (called rough ER) attaches polysaccharide groups to polypeptides as they are assembled by the ribosomes. Smooth ER, without ribosomes, is responsible for various activities, including the synthesis of lipids and hormones, especially in cells that produce these substances for export from the cell.

Normally, the DNA is spread out within the nucleus as a threadlike matrix called chromatin. When the cell begins to divide, the chromatin condenses into rod-shaped bodies called chromosomes, each of which, before dividing, is made up of two long DNA molecules and various histone molecules. The histones serve to organize the lengthy DNA, coiling it into bundles called nucleosomes. Also visible within the nucleus are one or more nucleoli, each consisting of DNA in the process of manufacturing the components of ribosomes.

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