Applied Anatomy of the Back by Professor Dr. med. Josef Rickenbacher, Professor Dr. med.

By Professor Dr. med. Josef Rickenbacher, Professor Dr. med. Alex M. Landolt, Professor Dr. med. Karl Theiler, Professor Dr. med. Heinrich Scheier, Professor Dr. med. Jean Siegfried, Professor Dr. med. Franz J. Wagenhäuser (auth.)

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B) The vertebral arches are connected by numerous ligaments, some extremely taut (Figs. 43, 44). The interspinous ligaments between the spinous processes are gradually succeeded dorsally by the supraspinous ligament, which varies greatly in form from one spinal region to another. In the cervical region it contains an abundance of elastic fibers, is very broad and is called the ligamentum nuchae. In the lumbar region these ligaments are weaker and they may even be absent. Between the laminae of adjacent vertebrae are the strong elastic membranes, the paired ligamenta flava.

The term pseudospondylolisthesis is used when displacement of a vertebra is the result of laxity of the intervertebral joints without any abnormality of the pars interarticularis. c) Malformations of the Transverse Processes Malformations of the transverse processes are either variations (assimilation deformities, see p. 215) or else aplasias, hypoplasias or bridge formations. When interpreting roentgenograms it must be remembered that bridges can be post-traumatic or post-inflammatory as weIl as congenital (WOLFERS and HOEFFKEN 1974).

49 Pain caused by spondylolisthesis arises either locally, because of the effect on the spine itself, or else as the result of nerve root compression, for which four different mechanisms have been observed (Fig. 75). 1. The nerve root of the same segment (L V in the Figure) is compressed in the vicinity ofthe intervertebral foramen ~posteriorly by hypertrophic connective tissue belonging to the pseudoarthrosis in the pars interarticularis of the vertebral arch, anteriorly by the reactively osteochondrotic vertebral rim (ADKINS 1955).

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