By W. Demtröder (auth.), Wolfgang Demtröder, Massimo Inguscio (eds.)

This quantity comprises the lectures and seminars provided on the NATO complex examine Institute on "Applied Laser Spectroscopy" the fourteenth process the Europhysics college of Quantum Electronics, held less than the supervision of the Quantum Electronics department of the eu actual Society. The Institute was once held at Centro "I Cappuccini", San Miniato, Tuscany, Italy, September 3-15,1989. The Europhysics institution of Quantum Electronics was once begun in 1970 with the purpose of supplying guide for younger researchers and complex scholars already engaged within the region of quantum electronics or wishing to change to this region from a distinct history. almost immediately the varsity is less than the course of Professors F.T. Arecchi and M Inguscio, college of Florence and Prof. H. Walther college of Munich and has the headquarters on the nationwide Institute of Optics (INO), Firenze, Italy. whenever the administrators decide upon an issue of specific curiosity, alternating primary themes with technological ones, and ask colleagues in particular efficient in a given sector to take the clinical accountability for that course.

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44 REFERENCES 1. Rather than giving specific references to well known fundamental papers on laser physics, I refer to a recent general review of mine plus References listed therein. F. T. Arecchi, in "Instabilities and Chaos in Quantum Optics", F. T. G. , Vol. 34 of Springer Series in Synergetics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), p. 9. 2. T. Arecchi in "Order and Fluctuations in Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics" (Proc. XVII Solvay Conf. on Physics) ed. by G. Nicolis et al. (Wiley, New York 1981), p.

No! The laws of electrostatics, more precisely, Poisson's equation prevent that. Is there any way out of this one-way street? Yes! A trap solely based on electric fields -- however, now time dependent -- exists and is easily understandable from the saddle point potential. When the particle starts to roll down the unstable hillside, rotate the potential, so that the particle suddenly sees a rising rather than a decreasing potential and create so a dynamical binding. The rotation of the saddle point model translates itself into the electrical ring electrode endcap setup as an oscillatory exchange of the polarity of the electrodes, that is, into applying an alternating voltage, Vo' The equation of motion of an ion in such a situation is the Mathieu differential equation well-known in classical mechanics which depending on the two voltages Uo and V allows stable and unstable solutions.

We conclude this section by emphasizing that the one-atom maser is a unique device, and that for three reasons: (1) it is the first maser which sustains oscillations with less than one atom on average, (2) this setup allows to study in detail the conditions necessary to obtain nonclassical radiation especially sub-Poisson light and (3) it is possible to come to a complete physical understanding of the generation process of pure quantum light. 19 THE ONE-ATOM-MASER -- A NEW PROBE OF COMPLEMENTARITY IN QUANTUM MECHANICS The electromagnetic field of a one-atom maser in a state of well-defined photon number, that is, in a number state?