By George F. Vander Voort (auth.), George F. Vander Voort (eds.)

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Color enhancement of interference films is frequently accomplished by using polarized light, sensitive tint plates, and phasecontrast devices. These either rely on the ability of some films to alter the plane of polarization or provide a phase shift that is sensitive to wavelength (see References 11, 12, and 25-28). For color to develop as a result of interference, films 40 to 500 nm thick must be produced. Film thickness is directly proportional to charge density, Q, the integration of the time-current density product to a given time expressed in coulombs cm- 2 , but only if all metal ions oxidized by the anodic current density remain in the film and do not pass into solution.

The electron transport in the metal and the conventional current, I, in the metal and in the solution are also shown in Fig. 2-2. Current in the solution is carried by ions, positive ions moving from anodic to cathodic sites and negative ions in the opposite direction. 5 V, as concluded previously, and the iron would spontaneously corrode. If, as shown in Fig. 2-3, a reference electrode such as the calomel half-cell is placed in the solution, then the potential of the corroding metal relative to this electrode can be measured using an electrometer.

For N greater than 3 or 4, excessive film thickness leads to absorption and poor color development. Considering that light passes into and from the film at an angle, interference for violet light with a wavelength of 400 nm starts to occur for films that are approximately 40 nm thick; these films produce a yellow color. The first blue will occur for films somewhat thinner than 70 nm. Successive color sequences occur for progressively thicker films, but clarity of color based on interference decreases for films thicker than 500 nm.