The Infrared & Electro-Optical Systems Handbook. Atmospheric by Frederick G. Smith, David L. Shumaker, Joseph S. Accetta

By Frederick G. Smith, David L. Shumaker, Joseph S. Accetta

This eight-volume set offers state of the art info on infrared and electro-optical structures. The instruction manual has been revised, and lines forty five chapters written through eighty specialists in IR/EO know-how. matters addressed comprise passive EO structures and atmospheric propagation of radiation.

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Additional resources for The Infrared & Electro-Optical Systems Handbook. Atmospheric Propagation of Radiation

Example text

Further, the sustained stresses calculated in this Code are “effective” stresses and are generally lower than those predicted by theory or measured in strain-gage tests. displacement stress: a stress developed by the selfconstraint of the structure. It must satisfy an imposed strain pattern rather than being in equilibrium with an external load. The basic characteristic of a displacement stress is that it is self-limiting. Local yielding and minor distortions can satisfy the displacement or expansion conditions that cause the stress to occur.

7, excluding para. 3 but including the consideration of allowances permitted by paras. 4. 2) External Pressure Stress. Piping subject to external pressure shall be considered safe when the wall thickness and means of stiffening meet the requirements of para. 3. 3) Longitudinal Stress. The sum of the longitudinal stresses, SL, due to pressure, weight, and other sustained loads shall not exceed the basic material allowable stress in the hot condition, Sh. 4 Ratings: Allowance for Variation From Normal Operation.

During pressure tests performed in accordance with para. 2% offset) at test temperature. In addition, the sum of longitudinal stresses due to test pressure and live and dead loads at the time of test, excluding occasional loads, shall not exceed 90% of the yield strength at test temperature. In determining the basic material allowable stresses, Sc and Sh, for welded pipe, the joint efficiency factor, E, need not be applied (see para. 3). The values of the allowable stresses from Mandatory Appendix A may be divided by the joint efficiency factor given for that material.

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