By American Academy of Ophthalmology, Richard A. Harper MD
An excellent supplement to the scientific student's curriculum and a number one textual content for fundamental care citizens and physicians. simple Ophthalmology provides sensible details for the analysis, administration, and referral of universal ocular problems. comprises up-to-date pictures and assets, extra pattern medical difficulties, and the most recent info on such parts as glaucoma care and eye-related getting older adjustments. Covers the attention exam, acute and protracted visible loss, the purple eye, ocular and orbital accidents, amblyopia and strabismus, neuro-ophthalmology, ocular manifestations of systemic illnesses, and medicine and the attention.
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A-1). A-2). N. e. collagen types II, V/XI and IX. In the case of collagen types II and V/XI, these are synthesized as procollagens that then undergo processing (cleavage with N- and C-proteinases) prior to incorporation into fibrils. The dotted line represents the mature collagen molecule that remains after processing. The mature type II collagen has short telopeptides remaining after processing Additional 69 amino acid domain in type IIA procollagen (see text) represented by the double line (=); this is also the case for the C-terminus of the type V/XI collagen, but a large part of the N-propeptide is retained.
A-1). However, whilst the C-propeptide is removed by processing, the N-propeptide is only partially processed and a large globular region is retained on the type V/XI collagen molecule . The type V/XI collagen assembles into heterotypic (mixed composition) fibrils in the vitreous along with type II and type IX collagen. Studies of other tissues demonstrate that type V/XI collagen has roles in nucleating collagen fibril formation and regulating collagen fibril diameter . c. Type IX Collagen Type IX collagen is not a fibril-forming collagen although it is found in the surface of collagen fibrils.
Mayne R, Brewton RG, Mayne PM, Baker JR. Isolation and characterization of the chains of type V/type XI collagen present in bovine vitreous. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:9381–6. 10. Smith SM, Birk DE. Focus on molecules: collagens V and XI. Exp Eye Res. 2012;98:105–6. 11. Bishop P, Ayad S, Reardon A, McLeod D, Sheehan J, Kielty C. Type VI collagen is present in human and bovine vitreous. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1996;234:710–3. 12 12. Ponsioen TL, van Luyn MJ, van der Worp RJ, van Meurs JC, Hooymans JM, Los LI.