By Frank Eperjesi BSc(Hons) PhD MCOptom Dip Orth FAAO MHEA PGCertHE, Michelle M. Rundstrom BSc(Hons) MCOptom DBO
Brimming with sound functional suggestion and beneficial scientific information, this e-book combines a step by step workbook layout with a significant other CD-ROM to demonstrate numerous eye flow issues. With its recommended exercises and protocols, this booklet bargains a simple, "how to" technique - making it a vital source for someone who encounters binocular imaginative and prescient anomalies.Offers useful suggestion in a "how to" style.Provides speedy entry to info in a step by step format.Makes studying more uncomplicated with invaluable summaries and goals defined first and foremost of every chapter.Presents all exams jointly on side-by-side web page spreads, with easy-to-follow workouts and protocols.Includes a better half CD-ROM with movies of eye pursuits to additional illustrate the stipulations mentioned within the textual content.
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Extra resources for Practical Binocular Vision Assessment
A high ratio). Convex lenses The method is the same as for concave lenses, but the fixation target should be at 33 em and convex lenses used. 0005 can be used. e. a high ratio). Tests to determine binocularity 7 Suppression Two types of suppression exist: • Physiological suppression - present in normal BSV to prevent awareness of physiological diplopia and retinal rivalry. • Pathological suppression - develops to overcome symptoms: - - binocular diplopia - occurs in heterotropia when the image of an object stimulates a non-corresponding point in the deviating eye.
Cases of uncompensated cyclophoria can be detected by the sloping of one or both green strips. Key point The slip will sub tend only 5-15 minutes of arc and, although this is easily seen by all but the most unobservant patient, some patients may expect the strips to separate widely and regard a small separation as insignificant and not worthy of mention. Any displacement is important - however small it may appear to the patient. Tests to determine binocularity 57 Vertical slip Horizontal slip No slip I 0 X0 I o -X- No slip o Rexoslip 0 XO -X R hyposlip I I R esoslip 0 XO R hyperslip - I axa I X- L hyposlip 0 0 0 X 0 0 -X- L hyperslip 0 0 0 I R&L exoslip 0 0 I -X R&L vertical slip CTshows R hyperphoria R&L vertical slip CTshows L hyperphoria a Xa I L exoslip axa I Suppression L esoslip a IX a I 0 Xa R central suppression 0 XI a L central suppression I R&L esoslip axa I Fig.
The test is used with the prism base out for suspected microesotropia and with the base in for microexotropia (where all the movements described below will be in the opposite direction). Equipment • Four-dioptre loose prism or horizontal prism bar • 6-m fixation target. 5 Four-dioptre prism test. (a) Fusion response in bifoveal binocular single vision. (b) Central suppression scotoma response in left microtropia with identity. Method • Observation of results is more apparent at a fixation distance of 6 m using a detailed target.