By A. G. Frodesen

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Solution Now Work Problem 15 (a) Gender is a qualitative variable because it allows a researcher to categorize the individual as male or female. Notice that arithmetic operations cannot be performed on these attributes. (b) Temperature is a quantitative variable because it is numeric, and operations such as addition and subtraction provide meaningful results. For example, 70°F is 10°F warmer than 60°F. (c) Number of days during the past week that a college student studied is a quantitative variable because it is numeric, and operations such as addition and subtraction provide meaningful results.

Just because the value of a variable is numeric does not mean that the variable is quantitative. 4 Distinguish between Discrete and Continuous Variables We can further classify quantitative variables into two types: discrete or continuous. DEFINITIONS In Other Words A discrete variable is a quantitative variable that has either a ﬁnite number of possible values or a countable number of possible values. The term countable means that the values result from counting, such as 0, 1, 2, 3, and so on.

We could present this result by saying that the percent of students in the survey who would return the money to the owner is 78%. This is an example of a descriptive statistic because it describes the results of the sample without making any general conclusions about the population. Population DEFINITIONS Sample A statistic is a numerical summary of a sample. Descriptive statistics consist of organizing and summarizing data. Descriptive statistics describe data through numerical summaries, tables, and graphs.