By Claude Levi-Strauss
Totemism is a Beacon Press e-book.
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But once these institutions were given, they began to lead an in dependent existence, as objects of curiosity or aesthetic admira tion, and also as symbols, by their very complication, of a higher type of culture. They must often have been adopted, for their own sake, by neighboring peoples who understood their function imperfectly. In su�h cases, they have been only approximately . adJusted to pre-existmg social rules, or even not at all. g ow to use them. In other words, and contrary to Elkin s behef, zt zs not because they are totemic that such systems must � ?
296. This book was already in proof when there came into our hands a very recent work by Firth (1961 ) in 8. 9. 10. 1 I. 12. 13. 14. Chapter 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Van Gennep, 1920, p. 351. Elkin, 1933a, p. 66. See above, p. 12. Warner, 1958, p. 1 17. , p. 122. 6. 7. 8. 9. 01 Anthro- I which other versions of the same myth are to be found. Jakobson and Halle, 1956, Chap. V. Firth, 1930-1931, pp. 300, 301. Firth, 1930-193 1, p. 398. Best, 1924. Prytz Johansen, 1954, p. 9. , p. 85. , p. 198. 2 pp. 122-123.
For Rousseau, moreover, affective life and intellectual life are op . " This is true to the extent that he some times writes, not of the state of society, in opposition to that of nature, but of the "state of reasoning. " 13 The advent of culture thus coincides with the birth of the intellect. us, which seems irreducible on the biologi . expressed cal �lane beca�se It IS by the seria lity of individuals . m the s . perfect hu self, ,� a faculty which � . re mams With us, m the species as much as in the individual· and without which an animal is, after a few months, what it wUI he � • .