By M. John Roobol, Alan L. Smith
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Extra info for Volcanology of Saba and St. Eustatius, Northern Lesser Antilles
The western boundary of this ridge is named Pirate Cliﬀ and forms a vertical geological contact between the yellow, older lithiﬁed material and the younger less well-lithiﬁed deposits to the immediate west forming the sea cliﬀs of Cave of Rum Bay (Plate 2). The younger deposits to the west are banked up against the older buried cliﬀ in the manner of a sector collapse scar. The relative ages of the two units is shown by their highly contrasted morphologies. The older deposits form a steep-sided promontory, whereas the younger block and ash ﬂow deposits behind Cave of Rum Bay are very deeply gullied.
Phreatic/phreatomagmatic-style eruptions Since European settlement of the Lesser Antilles the most common style of eruptive activity has been phreatic or phreatomagmatic eruptions (Table 2). , 1980), and thin ashes with accretionary lapilli produced during the 1979 eruption of Soufriere, St. , 1982; Shepherd and Sigurdsson, 1982). Finegrained ashes with accretionary lapilli and entombed gas cavities were also characteristic of the initial stages of both the 1902 eruption of Mt. Pelée, Martinique (Smith and Roobol, 1990) and the current eruption of the Soufriere Hills, Montserrat.
This is well demonstrated by the highly irregular submarine morphology of the forearc region between the Limestone Caribbee Arc and the ocean ﬂoor trench marking the boundary with the North American plate. Here a 16 Introduction series of ridges separated by valleys extend perpendicular to the arc front. The Malliwana and Tintamarre rises separated by the Anguilla valley extend east-northeast towards the Atlantic, parallel with the elongated island of Anguilla. A similar relationship exists east-northeast of Antigua with the Man of War ridge bounded by the Antigua and Willoughby valleys.