By Blaschke W.
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When we move the arrow shown above, the carbon will now get four bonds, and the second commandment has not been violated. The arrow above is valid, because the two commandments were not violated. PROBLEMS For each of the problems below, determine which arrows violate either one of the two commandments, and explain why. (Don’t forget to count all hydrogen atoms and all lone pairs. 4 DRAWING GOOD ARROWS Now that we know how to identify good arrows and bad arrows, we need to get some practice drawing arrows.
So there is no lone pair on this nitrogen atom. The bottom nitrogen atom has no formal charge, so this nitrogen atom has ﬁve electrons. It has three bonds, which means that there are two electrons left over, and they form a lone pair. PROBLEMS Review the common situations for nitrogen, and then come back to these problems. For each of the following structures, draw in all lone pairs. Try to recognize how many lone pairs there are without having to count. Then count to see if you were right. 6 FINDING LONE PAIRS THAT ARE NOT DRAWN 19 MORE PROBLEMS For each of the following structures, draw in all lone pairs (remember from the previous section that Cϩ has no lone pairs and CϪ has one lone pair).
This means that this nitrogen atom must have 5 Ϫ 1 ϭ 4 electrons. Now we can ﬁgure out how many lone pairs there are. Since this nitrogen has four bonds, it is using all of its electrons to form bonds. So there is no lone pair on this nitrogen atom. The bottom nitrogen atom has no formal charge, so this nitrogen atom has ﬁve electrons. It has three bonds, which means that there are two electrons left over, and they form a lone pair. PROBLEMS Review the common situations for nitrogen, and then come back to these problems.